What are the differences between n-type and p-type semiconductors?

Semiconductor refrigeration chip is widely used in our life. There are many types of semiconductor refrigeration chip in the market. Today we will explain to you the differences between n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor. Let’s introduce Hangzhou semiconductor refrigeration film for you.

1. N-type semiconductor
N-type semiconductors, also known as electronic semiconductors, can be formed by doping phosphorus and other impurities into the intrinsic semiconductors.

Because only four valence electrons in a pentavalent impurity atom can form covalent bonds with the valence electrons in the surrounding four semiconductor atoms, the extra valence electrons can easily form free electrons because they are not bound by covalent bonds. In n-type semiconductors, free electrons are the majority of carriers provided by impurity atoms, and holes are minority carriers formed by thermal excitation.

The pentavalent impurity atom that provides free electrons becomes a positive ion due to its positive charge. Therefore, the pentavalent impurity atom is also called donor impurity.

2. P-type semiconductor
P-type semiconductors, also known as hole semiconductors, are formed by doping boron, gallium and indium into intrinsic semiconductors.

When trivalent impurity atoms form covalent bonds with silicon atoms, they lack valence electrons and leave a hole in the covalent bonds. In p-type semiconductors, holes are the majority of carriers formed by doping, while electrons are minority carriers formed by thermal excitation. It is easy for holes to capture electrons and turn impurity atoms into negative ions. Therefore, trivalent impurities are also called receptor impurities.

The above two are for the difference between n-type and p-type semiconductors, so this article is over, thank you for reading!

Post time: May-31-2021